Fraser-Pryce, who became the only woman to win the 100 metres on four occasions at the IAAF World Athletics Championships, was named alongside artists, environmentalists, human rights activists, architects, politicians, scientists, writer, among others.
After storming to 100m world gold in Doha, she was also nominated for the IAAF World Athlete of the Year Award.
Britain's world heptathlon champion Katarina Johnson-Thompson is among the 11 nominees.
Johnson-Thompson won her first global outdoor title at the World Championships in Doha with a British record of 6,981 points.
The 26-year-old won the European Indoor Pentathlon title in March.
Kenya's Eliud Kipchoge, who broke the two-hour marathon mark in October, and two-time world gold medallist Christian Coleman of America have been nominated in the men's category.
The winners will be announced at the World Athletics Awards in Monaco on 23 November.
World Athlete of the Year - female nominees
Beatrice Chepkoech, Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce, Katarina Johnson-Thompson, Sifan Hassan, Brigid Kosgei, Mariya Lasitskene, Malaika Mihambo, Dalilah Muhammad, Salwa Eid Naser, Hellen Obiri and Yulimar Rojas
World Athlete of the Year - male nominees
Donavan Brazier, Christian Coleman, Joshua Cheptegei, Timothy Cheruiyot, Steven Gardiner, Sam Kendricks, Eliud Kipchoge, Noah Lyles, Daniel Stahl, Christian Taylor and Karsten Warholm